So here is why I have  not posted anything for a long time: I no longer am in the class that required me to blog. I know, not that exciting, but it’s true. This blog is probably going to either sit and stay as it is, a few posts analyzing random music, or I may blog sporadically about random things. This post may seem sort of superfluous, but I am posting this little explanation thing for myself more than anyone else. I like closure. The end.


listening log #3: Copland’s “El Salon Mexico” (blog post 7)


  • combination of monophony, heterophony, polyphony
  • displacement of rhythms
  • implementation of traditional folk songs (El Palo Verde, La Jesusita, El Mosco)
  • use of hemiolas, changing meter
  • instrumentation: strings, winds, percussion, brass, piano
  • embellishment, ornamentation, eg: clarinet solos


  • Introduction: unusually long, introduction of folk songs-individually, changing tempos
  • Development: exploration of themes, folk songs, rhythmic & melodic changes, fragmentation, sequences, ostinatos
  • Coda: increased intensity from heavy use of brass, loud dynamics (eg: fortississimo), closely related to introduction, opening figure in high voices


  • Aaron Copland was American composer, typified American music
  • also wrote “Billy the Kid”, “Appalachian Spring”, “Fanfare for the Common Man”
  • written after visiting Mexico in 1932 for first all-Copland orchestral concert, invited by Carlo Chavez
  • impressed by Mexico and inspired to compose by culture and peoples
  • based on nightclub “El Salon Mexico” that he visited, wanted to show culture beyond tourist view, “one felt a really live contact with the Mexican people”
  • premiered in 1937 in Mexico City

listening log #2: Ravel’s “Pavane pour une infante defunte”

Note: timings are based on the following recording:


  • solo piano
  • major
  • tempo is andante
  • sustained melody with inner harmonies
  • staccato off beat harmonies
  • heavy use of chords
  • 3:08 polyrhythm motif introduced
  • melody in mid-higher register of piano


  • A (0:00-0:58): begins with single note, single note melody, staccato harmonies between high melody&low contrasting harmony
  • 0:49 cadence
  • B (0:59-2:05)- contrasting mood, broader use of register, octave pedal, repeated chords in higher register, melody above all other parts, heterophonic (?)
  • 1:19 bridge motif (similar to @0:51), strong chords, syncopated rhythm, resolving chord progression ||cadence
  • return to B
  • 1:48 bridge motif developed
  • C (2:06-3:03)-rolled chords, melody begins in upper register, moves towards middle (@2:28), melody in octaves (@2:42)
  • 2:52 development of bridge motif, more intricate rhythm
  • D (3:04)- begins with single note, develops upward and out from single note
  • 3:42 repeats D slightly different, rolled chords
  • 4:27 repetition of  C, developed, arpeggiation of chords within essentially unchanged melody
  • 5:21 development of cadence @2:52


  • Ravel was a contemporary of Debussy, admired Wagner
  • early 20th century composer
  • better known for “Bolero”
  • published in 1902
  • pavane=type of dance
  • title means “pavane for a dead princess”
  • mournful

listening log #1: Beethoven’s “Moonlight Sonata”

Note: timings are based on the following recording:


  • instrumentation is for a solo piano
  • minor tonality, but moves through major chords: contrast in tonality, constant change
  • melody in upper register, moves to lower register near end (5:00): contrasting timbres,
  • foundation of octaves in bass: quasi counter melody
  • arpeggiated chords in middle register: constant movement
  • duple meter throughout
  • simple, 8th note rhythm: constancy, movement


  • overall A-B-A’
  • arpeggios across middle register of piano (0:00)
  • melody established in higher register (0:23-1:14): repeated notes characterize melody, faster rhythm
  • second melody established (1:14-2:26): half steps up move from dissonance to consonance, retardation; call and response between higher and lower melodies; slower, held notes
  • (2:27-3:07): movement of melody across keyboard as arpeggio, progressively higher, moves down (2:55), approaches lower melody
  • (3:07-3:27): development of second melody
  • (3:27-4:14): return to initial melody, unchanged at the beginning
  • (4:14-5:00): recapitulation of second melody
  • (5:00-5:35): melody moves to bass, increased intensity, but still quiet
  • (5:35-6:06): cadence to end


  • 1st movement of a 4 movement sonata
  • establishes melody for the rest of the sonata
  • written by Ludwig van Beethoven
  • late-Classical composer
  • from Belgium
  • recognized as a great composer in his time
  • contrast in styles, timbre, tone, etc within single piece

If writer’s block was a song…

…it would become annoying…really quickly. I would probably orchestrate it for a full symphony orchestra to emphasize the enormity of sound. The structure of the piece would be ternary form with contrasting A and B sections. The tempo of the A section would be presto and the overall mood would be frantic. The song would have a sense of constant movement, though the movement would quickly switch between different voices in the higher register. Bass instruments would hold the subtle melody for the majority of this section. Before the B section, the tempo would ritard to a ii-V-I cadence which would create a sense of completion. To modulate to the relative major in the B section, the tonic and fifth would hold through from the cadence as a double pedal tone while a solo clarinet established the new, minor melody. Then the bass would change chords under the light melody above.  The texture would be polyphonic with two clarinets and two flutes each playing individual melodies, contrasting with the heterophony in section A. The dynamics of this section would begin at subtle pianissimo and slowly crescendo as each voice joined in until it swelled around a fortissimo. The change in dynamics would be similar in the supporting chords. Then, there would be a sudden drop down to mezzo-forte. From there, the dynamics would slowly decrescendo with voices dropping out one by one until all that is left is octaves on the tonic and the solo clarinet. These would fade out as well. A slight, dramatic breath, and the ensemble would return to section A. This section would be identical to the first statement of section A, ending with the same strong ii-V-I cadence. Section A is meant to capture the mental and emotional panic of struggling to create . Section B contrasts as it reflects the sense of completion and contentment that comes with effectively creating a piece of art. Then, section A returns to the idea of quickly moving on and trying to create another piece of art.

{Writer’s block is not the lack of something to express, but a lack of words with which to express the inexpressible}

Music or Noise?

This post is a response to the question raised in my The music of words post. The question is “If the line between the melodic music and spoken music is blurred, where does the musician draw the line between music and noise?”

You might expect me, as a young musician trained by 20th and 21st century musicians to answer this question with what seems to be the modern musical response:  any and all noise is music. However, I do not agree with this. How can music be music if it is not acknowledged as music? I believe in absolute truths, but music is not an absolute. It is a fluid art form. Art in general is not absolute. It requires a designer, a perspective, an inspiration, and an audience. I agree that we can hear music everywhere, we just need to have our ears tuned into it. Many may argue that everything is art. Life is art. Life is music. This may be true metaphorically, but it is a stretch to say life is music. It is not an audible idea. Music and art strive to make sense out of life. Life does not usually make sense out of music. As a composer, life does not hand you music; it inspires you to write music. The composer explores a concept, whether musical or philosophical or other, and pass on their exploration or conclusion. The performer then has the responsibility to figure out what the composer intended and interpret the piece. They must make it their own. This is how one piece of written music can be heard as many works of music. The audience plays an important role as they absorb the music, whether listening critically or for the sake of enjoyment. Music affects its audience, if they are conscience of it or not. Music also can support other art forms such as drama, as it has since ancient times such as in Greek theater. In this context, music does not stand alone, but it is intertwined with the art of drama. Similarly, at an art gallery, music may be playing quietly. Here, music draws attention to the visual art displayed, taking a minor position in which it does not require interpretation.

Coming back to the original question, music needs to be made to be music. It also needs to be interpreted. As musicians, we distinguish what we understand as music and what is mere noise. Context is also important as music assumes different roles when it is found in different places. Music is music because it has been created, because it has been interpreted as such, because it has a role in art and society. So if you asked me “Music is in the sounds you hear in the city or in the woods or anywhere else in the world,” I would respond saying “I can agree with that. Then, what role does it play?”

{Out of noise, musicians make music.}